Thursday, December 15, 2011

EVOLUTION OF THE BIO –DIVERSITY-1



                            EVOLUTION OF THE BIO –DIVERSITY

The inorganic air moluecules converted into organic molecules in the per atmosphere cause of electric discharges and solar radiation. These substances dissolved in water and the first living forms originated.






 Alexander  Opharin  and J.B.S.Haldean -|1923|are the scientists who exposed this poinion for the frist time,and later Stanly Miller |1955|confirmed their opinion by a probative research.He imitated the condition of the pre arth inside flasks in a laboratory,they say that Amino acids Hydrocabons and many other organic molecules in the atmosphere.The energy which required for this process was gained  by  soler radiation thunderbolds which caused bopowerful electric discharges volcanisam and the heat which caused by radioactive corrosions.
            Scientists believe that the pre ocean was a Primodial Soup and it originated by organic molecules.
This Primodial Soup contained Amino  acids,nitrogenous bases, simple suger and nucleic acids.These molecules were unitedly cover by a layer of lipids. These structures  evaluated in to pre cells.These cells contained the characteristics of living organisms such as growth self replication, This can be known as the origin of life. The organisms who formed for the first time on the earth are called as anaerobic heterotrophic prokaryotics.
According to this bio chemical evolution of the bio diversity, life originated before about 3.5 billions of years ago,on earth. In another hand who can discard the hypothesis that the life in our earth is just another laboratory for some group of well developed creatures out side of our Milky way.                                 
     
Eco astronomy sri lanka- Copy  Right Reserved 2011 Space science & Eco Astronomy unit.



Friday, December 9, 2011

New- Seeing the Forest Under the Trees



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    Discovery
     Seeing the Forest Under the Trees

    New Effect of Acid Rain on Forests: Too Many Dead Leaves a Bad Sign for Sugar Maples

    Image of dead maple leaves on the forest floor.
    Ecologists found a new effect of acid rain: too many dead leaves on the forest floor.
    Credit and Larger Version
    December 7, 2011
    Scientists have discovered that nitrogen that falls from the atmosphere in acid rain can influence large tracts of sugar maples in North America.
    The atmospheric nitrogen in acid rain can affect forest ecosystems by acidifying soils and causing nutrient imbalances.
    Sugar maples in northeastern North America are especially vulnerable. Vast maple areas have been affected by this acidification process, which depletes soil calcium in already calcium-poor soils such as those of the Eastern United States.
    In the calcium-rich soils of the upper Great Lakes, however, acid rain also wreaks havoc, ecologists have found.  It slows leaf decomposition, leading to a pile-up of leaves and hindering new young maples from sprouting up.
    The researchers published their results on-line in the current issue of the Journal of Applied Ecology.
    "The process has the potential to affect sugar maple-dominated forests throughout the Great Lakes region," says Donald Zak, an ecologist at the University of Michigan, "especially as nitrogen deposition continues in the future."
    He and colleagues Sierra Patterson of the University of Michigan, Andrew Burton of Michigan Technological University and Alan Talhelm and Kurt Pregitzer of the University of Idaho conducted seventeen years of nitrogen deposition experiments at rates that will likely happen by the end of this century.
    "The effects have slowed the natural processes of decomposition, such as the decay of dead leaves, causing the leaves to build up and the forest floor to thicken," says Zak.
    The leaf-littered ground has become a barrier to the small seeds of sugar maples, hence numbers of young sugar maples--the forest's next generation--are dropping.
    "There were significantly fewer seedlings in the nitrogen treatment area," says Patterson, the paper's lead author.
    "Increasing the amount of fallen leaves on the forest floor caused a significant reduction in successful sugar maple seedlings," she says. "On the other hand, decreasing the thickened forest floor increased seedling survival."
    "The surprising results reported in this study are an example of the value of long-term research," says Saran Twombly, program director in the National Science Foundation (NSF)'s Division of Environmental Biology, which funded the work.
    "Uncovering an unexpected link between nitrogen deposition and sugar maple seedling success depended on the ability to simulate increased nitrogen deposition year after year," Twombly says.
    "The manipulations used to reveal the details of this link could not have worked in other than a long-term study."
    Scientists need to re-think the myriad ways in which acid rain may affect forests, Zak believes, especially those made up largely of sugar maples.
    "We need to learn to see the forest," he says, "that's under the trees."

Tuesday, December 6, 2011

2012 - NASA Report



2012: Beginning of the End or Why the World Won't End?
11.06.09
Scenes from the upcoming film 2012. Courtesy Columbia Pictures.Scenes from the motion picture "2012." Courtesy Columbia Pictures.Remember the Y2K scare? It came and went without much of a whimper because of adequate planning and analysis of the situation. Impressive movie special effects aside, Dec. 21, 2012, won't be the end of the world as we know. It will, however, be another winter solstice. 


Much like Y2K, 2012 has been analyzed and the science of the end of the Earth thoroughly studied. Contrary to some of the common beliefs out there, the science behind the end of the world quickly unravels when pinned down to the 2012 timeline. Below, NASA Scientists answer several questions that we're frequently asked regarding 2012.


Question (Q): Are there any threats to the Earth in 2012? Many Internet websites say the world will end in December 2012.
Answer (A): Nothing bad will happen to the Earth in 2012. Our planet has been getting along just fine for more than 4 billion years, and credible scientists worldwide know of no threat associated with 2012. 


Q: What is the origin of the prediction that the world will end in 2012?
A: The story started with claims that Nibiru, a supposed planet discovered by the Sumerians, is headed toward Earth. This catastrophe was initially predicted for May 2003, but when nothing happened the doomsday date was moved forward to December 2012. Then these two fables were linked to the end of one of the cycles in the ancient Mayan calendar at the winter solstice in 2012 -- hence the predicted doomsday date of December 21, 2012.


Q: Does the Mayan calendar end in December 2012?
A: Just as the calendar you have on your kitchen wall does not cease to exist after December 31, the Mayan calendar does not cease to exist on December 21, 2012. This date is the end of the Mayan long-count period but then -- just as your calendar begins again on January 1 -- another long-count period begins for the Mayan calendar.


Q: Could phenomena occur where planets align in a way that impacts Earth?
A: There are no planetary alignments in the next few decades, Earth will not cross the galactic plane in 2012, and even if these alignments were to occur, their effects on the Earth would be negligible. Each December the Earth and sun align with the approximate center of the Milky Way Galaxy but that is an annual event of no consequence. 


"There apparently is a great deal of interest in celestial bodies, and their locations and trajectories at the end of the calendar year 2012. Now, I for one love a good book or movie as much as the next guy. But the stuff flying around through cyberspace, TV and the movies is not based on science. There is even a fake NASA news release out there..."
- Don Yeomans, NASA senior research scientist
Q: Is there a planet or brown dwarf called Nibiru or Planet X or Eris that is approaching the Earth and threatening our planet with widespread destruction?
A: Nibiru and other stories about wayward planets are an Internet hoax. There is no factual basis for these claims. If Nibiru or Planet X were real and headed for an encounter with the Earth in 2012, astronomers would have been tracking it for at least the past decade, and it would be visible by now to the naked eye. Obviously, it does not exist. Eris is real, but it is a dwarf planet similar to Pluto that will remain in the outer solar system; the closest it can come to Earth is about 4 billion miles. 


Q: What is the polar shift theory? Is it true that the earth’s crust does a 180-degree rotation around the core in a matter of days if not hours? 
A: A reversal in the rotation of Earth is impossible. There are slow movements of the continents (for example Antarctica was near the equator hundreds of millions of years ago), but that is irrelevant to claims of reversal of the rotational poles. However, many of the disaster websites pull a bait-and-shift to fool people. They claim a relationship between the rotation and the magnetic polarity of Earth, which does change irregularly, with a magnetic reversal taking place every 400,000 years on average. As far as we know, such a magnetic reversal doesn’t cause any harm to life on Earth. A magnetic reversal is very unlikely to happen in the next few millennia, anyway. 
› More about polar shift 


The Blue Marble: Next GenerationEarth, as seen in the Blue Marble: Next Generation collection of images, showing the color of the planet's surface in high resolution. This image shows South America from September 2004.Q: Is the Earth in danger of being hit by a meteor in 2012?
A: The Earth has always been subject to impacts by comets and asteroids, although big hits are very rare. The last big impact was 65 million years ago, and that led to the extinction of the dinosaurs. Today NASA astronomers are carrying out a survey called the Spaceguard Survey to find any large near-Earth asteroids long before they hit. We have already determined that there are no threatening asteroids as large as the one that killed the dinosaurs. All this work is done openly with the discoveries posted every day on the NASA NEO Program Office website, so you can see for yourself that nothing is predicted to hit in 2012.


Q: How do NASA scientists feel about claims of pending doomsday?
A: For any claims of disaster or dramatic changes in 2012, where is the science? Where is the evidence? There is none, and for all the fictional assertions, whether they are made in books, movies, documentaries or over the Internet, we cannot change that simple fact. There is no credible evidence for any of the assertions made in support of unusual events taking place in December 2012. 


Q: Is there a danger from giant solar storms predicted for 2012?
A: Solar activity has a regular cycle, with peaks approximately every 11 years. Near these activity peaks, solar flares can cause some interruption of satellite communications, although engineers are learning how to build electronics that are protected against most solar storms. But there is no special risk associated with 2012. The next solar maximum will occur in the 2012-2014 time frame and is predicted to be an average solar cycle, no different than previous cycles throughout history.

Introduction to Astrophotography by Cari Letellier

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